• Home
  • /
  • Blog
  • /
  • Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles using Alternanthera Sessilis Linn Leaf Aqueous Extract and their Characterization

Hari Babu, Md. Moulana Kareem, G. Vijaya Lakshmi


Volume 9  |  Issue : 3  |  DOI : 10.37591/JoPC  | Received : 08/20/2022    |  Accepted : 08/30/2022  |  Published : 08/30/2022

[This article belongs to the  Journal of Polymer & Composites   (JoPC) ]


  •  Antioxidant,
  •  Antibacterial
  •  Biogenic
  •  Catalytic
  •  Nanoparticles
  •  Phyto-chemicals


The current study describes the biogenesis of Cu NPs using an aqueous extract of the leaf of Alternanthera sessilisLinn. (A.S). recently, biological synthesis of nanoparticles has gained popularity due to the fact that it is eco-friendly, simple, cost-effective, non-hazardous, and extreme conditions. The aqueous extract of Alternanthera sessilisleaf contains enoughterpenoids, carbohydrates, and flavonoids to convert metal ions into metal and thus stabilize the resulting nanoparticles. The UV-visible spectrophotometer confirmed the formation of Cu NPs with the formation of a characteristic peak at 580 nm, the XRD determined the Crystalline FCC nature of biogenic Cu NPs, the FTIR and EDX confirmed that phyto-chemicals were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of Cu NPs, and the zeta potential value (-29.1 mv) confirmed the formation of stable Cu NPs. The spherical shape and size of about 3–12 nm were revealed by TEM analysis.The biogenic Cu NPs demonstrated fascinating dose dependent antioxidant activity with EC50% as 78.83 g/ml, and highest activity as 68.36 at 100 g/ml, as well as significant Photo catalytic activity against Congo red dye, which was completely degraded after 26 minutes. Furthermore, the studies revealed that Cu NPs displayed greater antibacterial efficacy against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria.

Full Text:


  1. Le Tu H. Biosynthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles produced using aqueous extract of lemongrass leaf. Composite Materials. 2019; 3 (1): 30–5.
  2. Sharma G, Kumar A, Sharma S, et al. Novel development of nanoparticles to bimetallic nanoparticles and their composites: A review. Journal of King Saud University-Science. 2019; 31 (2): 257–69. doi: 10.1016/j.jksus.2017.06.012.
  3. Rajan, M.S. Nano: The Next Revolution. National Book Trust: India; 2004. pp. 15–72
  4. Usha S, Ramappa KT, Hiregoudar S, et al. Biosynthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles from tulasi (Ocimum sanctum L.) leaves. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2017; 6 (11): 2219–28. https://doi.org/10.20546/
  5. ijcmas.2017.611.263
  6. N. Kulkarni, U. Muddapur. Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles: A review. J. Nanotechnol. 2014; 2014. doi: 10.1155/2014/510246.
  7. K. Gopinath, Kumaraguru S, Bhakyaraj K, et al. Green synthesis of silver, gold and silver/gold bimetallic nanoparticles using the Gloriosa superba leaf extract and their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities. Microb. Pathog. 2016; 101: 1–11. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2016.10.011.
  8. Khare P, Sharma A, Verma N. Synthesis of phenolic precursor-based porous carbon beads in situ dispersed with copper–silver bimetal nanoparticles for antibacterial applications. Journal of colloid and interface science. 2014 Mar 15; 418: 216–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2013.
  9. 026
  10. S. Parthasarathy. Fabrication and Characterization of Copper Nanoparticles by Green Synthesis Approach Using PlectranthusAmboinicus Leaves Extract Introduction : Materials And Methods. Research Square. pp. 1–9.
  11. Raigond P, Raigond B, Kaundal B, et al. Effect of zinc nanoparticles on antioxidative system of potato plants. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2017; 38 (3): 435. https://doi.org/10.22438/
  12. jeb/38/3/MS-209
  13. Ruparelia JP, Chatterjee AK, Duttagupta SP, et al. Strain specificity in antimicrobial activity of silver and copper nanoparticles. Acta biomaterialia. 2008; 4 (3): 707–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2007.11.006
  14. Kotval SC, John T, Parmar KA. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Mitragyna parvifolia plant bark extract and its antimicrobial study. Journal of Nanoscience and Technology. 2018: 456–60. https://doi.org/10.30799/jnst.133.18040415
  15. Hulkoti NI, Taranath TC. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles using microbes—a review. Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2014; 121: 474–83. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.05.027.
  16. Din MI, Arshad F, Hussain Z, et al. Green adeptness in the synthesis and stabilization of copper nanoparticles: catalytic, antibacterial, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities. Nanoscale research letters. 2017; 12 (1): 1–5. doi: 10.1186/s11671-017-2399-8.
  17. Balakrishnan G, Shil S, Vijalakashmi N, et al. Green synthesis of copper nanocrystallites using triphala churna and their anti-microbial studies. Drug Invention Today. 2019;12(9):2038-44.
  18. Qian L, Su W, Wang Y, et al. Synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles from aqueous leaf extract of Alternanthera sessilis and its anticancer activity on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology. 2019; 47 (1): 1173–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/
  19. 2018.1549064
  20. Batoool M, Masood B. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Solanum lycopersicum (tomato aqueous extract) and study characterization. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2017; 1: 1–5.
  21. Shivapriya Raje Bhonsle, A., Jeevitha, M., Preetha, S., et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of copper nanoparticles synthesized using dried ginger. Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology. 2020; 21 (57–58): 1–7.
  22. Gopinath M, Subbaiya R, Selvam MM, Suresh D. Synthesis of copper nanoparticles from Nerium oleander leaf aqueous extract and its antibacterial activity. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014;3(9):814-8.
  23. Baskaran C, Ratha-bai B. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii roots extract and its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungus. International Journal of Drug Development and Research. 2013 Jan; 5 (1): 114–9.
  24. Kiranmai M, Kadimcharla K, Keesara NR, et al. Green synthesis of stable copper nanoparticles and synergistic activity with antibiotics. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 79 (5): 695–700. https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000281
  25. Kolekar R, Bhade S, Kumar Ra, et al. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Eucalyptus sp. plant leaves. Curr. Sci. 2015; 109 (2): 255–7. https://doi.org/
  26. 18520/cs/v109/i2/255-257
  27. Saranyaadevi K, Subha V, Ravindran RE, et al. Synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticle using Capparis zeylanica leaf extract. Int J Chem Tech Res. 2014; 6 (10): 4533–41.
  28. Shende S, Ingle AP, Gade A, Rai M. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2015; 31 (6): 865–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-015-1840-3
  29. Nasrollahzadeh M, Sajadi SM, Khalaj M. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using aqueous extract of the leaves of Euphorbia esula L and their catalytic activity for ligand-free Ullmann-coupling reaction and reduction of 4-nitrophenol. RSC Advances. 2014; 4 (88): 47313–8. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra08863h
  30. Subhankari I, Nayak PL. Synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Syzygium aromaticum (Cloves) aqueous extract by using green chemistry. World J Nano Sci Technol. 2013; 2 (1): 14–7. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wjnst.2013.2.1.21134
  31. Gunti L, Dass RS, Kalagatur NK. Phytofabrication of selenium nanoparticles from Emblica officinalis fruit extract and exploring its biopotential applications: antioxidant, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility. Frontiers in microbiology. 2019; 10: 931. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00931.
  32. Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, et al. Phytochemicals: Extraction, isolation, and identification of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. Plants. 2017; 6 (4): 42. doi: 10.3390/plants6040042.
  33. Nayantara, P. Kaur. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles using eco-friendly factories and their role in plant pathogenicity: a review. Biotechnol. Res. Innov. 2018; 2 (1): 63–73, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.biori.2018.09.003.
  34. Mohindru, J.J., & Garg, U.K. (2017). Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Tea Leaf Extract. International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology, 307 (7).
  35. Murthy, H.C.A., Desalegn, T., Kassa, M., Abebe, B., & Assefa, T. (2020). Synthesis of Green Copper Nanoparticles Using Medicinal Plant Hageniaabyssinica (Brace) JF. Gmel. Leaf Extract: Antimicrobial Properties. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3924081
  36. Khan M, Al-Hamoud K, Liaqat Z, et al. Synthesis of au, ag, and au–ag bimetallic nanoparticles using pulicaria undulata extract and their catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10 (9): 1885. doi: 10.3390/nano10091885.
  37. Rajeshkumar S, Menon S, Kumar SV, et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant potential of biosynthesized copper nanoparticles mediated through Cissus arnotiana plant extract. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2019; 197: 111531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
  38. jphotobiol.2019.111531
  39. Shende, S., Gaikwad, N., Bansod, S. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial potential of copper nanoparticle against agriculturally important Phytopathogens. International Journal of Biology Research. 2016; 1 (4): 41–47.
  40. Khodaie M, Ghasemi N. Green synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles using Eryngium campestre leaf extract. Bulgarian Chemical Communications. 2018; 50: 244–50.
  41. T. Theivasanthi, M. Alagar. X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Copper Nanopowder. Archives of Physics Research. 2010; 1 (2): 112–117.
  42. Kiriyanthan RM, Sharmili SA, Balaji R, et al. Photocatalytic, antiproliferative and antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract: A photodynamic approach. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2020; 32: 102058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102058
  43. Ismail, N. A., Shameli, K., Che Jusoh, et al. Preparation of Copper Nanoparticles by Green Biosynthesis Method: A Short Review. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2021; 1051 (1): 012084. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1051/1/012084
  44. Fatma S, Kalainila P, Ravindran E, et al. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticle from Passiflora foetida leaf extract and its antibacterial activity. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2017: 79–83. doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i4.15744.
  45. Cheirmadurai K, Biswas S, Murali R, et al. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles and conducting nanobiocomposites using plant and animal sources. RSC Advances. 2014; 4 (37): 19507–11. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra01414f.
  46. Ismail M, Gul S, Khan MI, et al. Green synthesis of zerovalent copper nanoparticles for efficient reduction of toxic azo dyes congo red and methyl orange. Green processing and synthesis. 2019; 8(1): 135–43s.
  47. Fowsiya J, Madhumitha G, Al-Dhabi NA, et al. Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red using Carissa edulis extract capped zinc oxide nanoparticles. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2016; 162: 395–401. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.
  48. jphotobiol.2016.07.011.
  49. Batool M, Qureshi MZ, Hashmi F, et al. Congo Red Azo Dye Removal and Study of Its Kinetics by Aloe Vera Mediated Copper Oxide Nanoparticles. Indones J Chem. 2019; 19 (3): 626–37.
  50. Mary J, Devadathan D, Baiju V, et al. Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dye Congo Red Using Copper Oxide / Nickel Oxide Nanocomposite. International Journal of Advance Research in Science & Engineering. 2017; 6 (3): 284–7.
  51. Moulana Kareem M, Lakshmi GV. Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles and Evaluation of its Antioxidant and Antibacterial Efficacy. Asian J Chem. 2022; 34 (7): 1703–10.
  52. K Madhuri, Divya D, Vinita N.M., et al. Assessment of the effect of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using Artemia nauplii. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences. 2020; 49 (12): 1831–1838