Susarla Venkata Ananta Rama Sastry
Volume 9 | Issue : 3 | DOI : 10.37591/JoPC | Received : 08/20/2022 | Accepted : 08/30/2022 | Published : 08/30/2022
[This article belongs to the Journal of Polymer & Composites (JoPC) ]
- Bentonite clay
- Methyl esters
- Pongamia pinnata
Due to the ever increasing human population worldwide, especially in the developing countriesacross the world; renewable energy sources are in the primary focus of the scientists and researchers. In addition, thedepletion of the reserves of the fossil fuels along with the increased consumption of the available reserves has led to wide spread global unrest. Complementing the above, there are significant environmental problems namely global warming due to increased global temperature resulting in the melting of polar ice caps, ozone layer depletion due to ozone-hole formation, etc. All these need exigent responsiveness. Across the world, the governments are alarmed about the endeavorsof industrial production andtransportation. There are numerous health effects due to the exhaust emissions from the automobiles using the fossil fuels. All this has compelled the research on environment friendly fuels like bio-ethanol and biodiesel as preeminent substitutions to the conventional fossil fuels. This paper discusses about the utilization of bentonite clay coupled with potash for the synthesis of Octadec-9-enoic acid methyl esters of pongamia pinnata triglycerides. The maximum yield of methyl esters was obtained at a volumetric methanol-oil ratio of 10:1, temperature of 70 degree Celsius, reaction time of 75 minutes and catalyst concentration of 10 wt %. Furthermore, the characterization study of the catalyst confirmed the occurrence of active sites on the surface. The reaction mechanism was found through the kinetic studies on methanolysis. The usage of heterogenous catalyst ensured the absence of any side reactions like the formation of soap.
- Acharya, N., Nanda, P., Panda, S., & Acharya, S. 2019. Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences Original article A comparative study of stability characteristics of mahua and jatropha biodiesel and their blends. Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 31(2): 184–190.
- Atadashi, I. M., Aroua, M. K., Abdul Aziz, A. R., & Sulaiman, N. M. N. 2013. The effects of catalysts in biodiesel production: A review. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 19(1): 14–26.
- Bello, E. I., Ogedengbe, T. I., Lajide, L., & Daniyan, I. A. 2016. Optimization of Process Parameters for Biodiesel Production Using Response Surface Methodology. 4(2): 8–16.
- Berchmans, H. J., Morishita, K., & Takarada, T. 2013. Kinetic study of hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis of Pongamia pinnata – waste food oil mixture for biodiesel production. Fuel, 104: 46–52.
- Krishnamurthy, K. N., Sridhara, S. N., & Kumar, C. S. A. 2020. Optimization and kinetic study of biodiesel production from Hydnocarpus wightiana oil and dairy waste scum using snail shell CaO nano catalyst. Renewable Energy, 146: 280–296.
- Manojkumar, N., Muthukumaran, C., & Sharmila, G. 2020. Journal of King Saud University
- – Engineering Sciences A comprehensive review on the application of response surface methodology for optimization of biodiesel production using different oil sources. Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, xxxx.
- Mo, M., Masjuki, H. H., Kalam, M. A., & Atabani, A. E. 2013. Evaluation of biodiesel blending , engine performance and emissions characteristics of Pongamia pinnata methyl ester : Malaysian perspective. 55.
- Muthukumaran, C., Praniesh, R., Navamani, P., Swathi, R., Sharmila, G., & Manoj, N.
- Process optimization and kinetic modeling of biodiesel production using non-edible Madhuca indica oil. Fuel, 195: 217–225.
- Sastry S.V.A.R., K.V. Rao, 2020. Characterizing the conversion of Transesterification reaction by modeling of Glycerol-rich phase, International Journal of Environment and Waste Management. 26: 309-323.
- Sastry S.V.A.R., Ch.V Ramachandra Murthy, 2013. Sustainable energy for eco-friendly development, i-manager’s Journal on Future Engineering and Technology. 8: 1-8.
- Sastry S.V.A.R., Ch.V Ramachandra Murthy, 2014. Synthesis of biodiesel by insitu transesterification of karanja oil, Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 49: 211-218.
- Sastry S.V.A.R., Ch.V Ramachandra Murthy, 2015. Studies on production of biodiesel from algae, i-manager’s Journal on Future Engineering and Technology. 10: 10-20.
- Sastry, S.V.A.R., 2005. Biodiesel Production: Lab Studies to Pilot Plant Studies, M. Tech Thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.
- Sastry S.V.A.R., Murthy Ch.V.R, 2012. Prospects of biodiesel for future energy security, Elixir, Chemical Engg. 53: 12029-12034.
- Sastry, S.V.A.R., 2021. Effect of catalyst and methanol on synthesis of methyl esters from used cooking oil, Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis, 8: 1-10.
- Sastry, S.V.A.R., 2021. Predicting rate equation for the synthesis of Octadec-9-enoic acid methyl esters by the Methanolysis of Pongamia Pinnata Triglycerides Using Sono Reactor, Journal of Polymer & Composites, 9 (3): 45-55.
- Sastry, S.V.A.R., 2022. Prediction of Optimum Process Parameters for Karanja Biodiesel production using Support Vector Machine, Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, (in press) doi:10.30492/IJCCE.2021.128278.4153
- Shahir, V. K., Jawahar, C. P., Vinod, V., & Suresh, P. R. 2020. Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences Experimental investigations on the performance and emission characteristics of a common rail direct injection engine using tyre pyrolytic biofuel. Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 32(1): 78–84.
- Singh, A., Sinha, S., Kumar, A., & Panchal, H. 2020. Optimization of performance and emission characteristics of CI engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel produced using a heterogeneous catalyst. Fuel, 280: 118611.
- Vishnupriya I, Sastry S.V.A.R., Abanti Sahoo, 2019. Acid Catalysis of Waste Cooking Oils for Biodiesel Production, Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy & Environment. 10: 91-95.
- Soetaredjo, F. E., Ayucitra, A., Ismadji, S., & Maukar, A. L. 2011. KOH/bentonite catalysts for transesterification of palm oil to biodiesel. Applied Clay Science, 53(2): 341–346.