Developments in Functional PVC and Its Composites
Open Access    Article

Developments in Functional PVC and Its Composites

Paris

Saurabh K. Tiwari

Virendrakumar Gupta

Volume

Volume 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Received : November 27th, 2021    |  Accepted : March 23rd, 2022  |  Published : April 19th, 2022   

DOI :  

NA

Keywords


*Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
*Functional PVC
*Chlorinated PVC
*PVC copolymers
*Free radical
*PVC composites

Abstract

The main aim of this review study is to summarise the progress and recent modifications in the area of functionalised PVC including chlorinated PVC, PVC copolymers and their composite developments. Functionalized PVC and its copolymers shown very good improved properties which enhanced the PVC application domain as compare to other polymers. Due to the higher chlorine content polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shows higher mechanical and fire-resistive properties which are suitable for building construction materials. PVC is also very good for piping, electrical and several other applications including the medical and toy sector. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) synthesis by different methods and the dependence of chlorine content on different reaction parameters are well established and studied in detail. Functional PVC and PVC copolymer and their related composites are very essential functional materials as they depict excellent performance in terms of mechanical properties, ease of processing, dispersion phenomenon and high thermal properties. Due to these behaviours modified PVC materials have opened a new and improved applications and opportunities in various areas like medical, sports, packaging and building constructions. Composite products based on functionalized PVC is also taken the interest of industries and researchers. Functionalized PVC composite products show better performance and structural stability. These functionalized PVC composites give better compatibility or miscibility with other polymers which also open new opportunities to make different products for various new applications. These functionalized polymers can also be utilized to avoid or reduce the mixing of different plasticizers during the processing of PVC based composite or blending formulations.


Please wait while flipbook is loading. For more related info, FAQs and issues please refer to DearFlip WordPress Flipbook Plugin Help documentation.

References


1.Espinosa LMD, Gevers A, Woldt B, et al. Sulfur-containing fatty acid-based plasticizers via thiolene addition and oxidation: Synthesis and evaluation in PVC formulations. Green Chem. 2014;

2.16(4): 1883–1896.

3.Silva MD, Vieira MGA, Macumoto ACG, et al. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and Natural Rubber Films

4.Plasticized with a Natural Polymeric Plasticizer Obtained Through Polyesterification of Rice Fatty Acid. Polym. Test., 2011; 30(5): 478-484.

5.Saeki Y, Emura T. Technical Progresses for PVC Production, Prog. Polym. Sci., 2002, 27, 2055- 2131.

6.Jia P, Zhang M, Hu L, et al. Thermal Degradation Behavior and Flame Retardant Mechanism of Poly(vinyl chloride) Plasticized with a Soybean-Oil-Based Plasticizer Containing Phosphaphenanthrene Groups, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 2015, 121, 292-302

7.Zhou Y, Yang N, Hu S. Industrial metabolism of PVC in China: A dynamic material flow analysisResour. Conserv. Recycl., 2013, 73, 33-40.

8.Palencia M, Lerma TA, Afanasjeva N. Antibacterial cationic poly(vinyl chloride) as an approach for in situ pathogen-inactivation by surface contact with biomedical materials, Eur. Polym. J. 2019, 115, 212-220,

9.Kumar S. Recent developments of biobased plasticizers and their effect on mechanical and thermal properties of poly(vinyl chloride): a review, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2019, 58, 11659-11672.

10.Jia P, Zhang M, Hu L, et al. A strategy for nonmigrating plasticized PVC modified with mannich base of waste cooking oil methyl ester, Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 1-8

11.Beveridge JM, Chenot HM, Crich A, et al. Covalent functionalization of flexible polyvinyl chloride tubing, Langmuir 2018, 34, 10407-10412.

12.Jia P, Hu L, Shang Q, et al. Self-plasticization of PVC materials via chemical modification of mannich base of cardanol butyl ether, ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2017, 5, 6665-6673,

13.Earla A, Li L, Costanzo P, et al. Phthalate plasticizers covalently linked to PVC via copper-free or copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions, Polym. 2017, 109,1-12.

14.Moulay S. Trends in chemical modification of poly(vinyl chloride). Khimiya (Chemistry) 2002, 11, 217-44.

15.Okawara M, Ochian I. Modification of Polymers, Ed. Carraher C. E. and Tsuda, M. ACS Symp. Ser., 121, Amer. Chem, Soc., 1980, 121, 41.–57

16.Biswas M, Moitra S. Recent progress in chemical modification of poly(vinyl chloride). Indian J Technol 1990, 28, 111-9.

17.Yoshioka T, Akama T, Ushida M, et al. Analysis of two stages dehydrochlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) using TG-MS. Chem Lett 2000, 29, 322–3.

18.Yoshioka T, Saitoh N, Okuwaki A. Temperature dependence on the activation energy of dechlorination in thermal degradation of polyvinylchloride, Chem Lett 2005,34, 70–1.

19.Pi Z, Kennedy JP. Cationic grafting of olefins from PVC: the effect of reaction conditions. J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 2001, 39, 1675–80.

20.Pi Z, Kennedy JP, Poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(2-methyl-1,5- hexadiene): PVC fitted with multiple allyl groups. Polym. Bull 2001, 45, 451–6.

21.Pi Z, Kennedy JP, Cationic grafting of norbornadiene, indene, and 1,3-cyclohexadiene from PVC. Polym Bull 2002, 48, 345–52.

22.Jenkins DW, Hudson SM. Review of vinyl graft copolymerization featuring recent advances toward controlled radical-based reactions and illustrated with chitin/chitosan trunk polymers, Chem. Rev. 2001, 101, 3245-3273.

23.Flory PJ. Principles of Polymer Chemistry. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University press, 1953, Chapter 4.

24.Odian, G. Principles of Polymerization. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1991, Chapter 3.
Battaerd HAJ, Tregear GW. Graft Copolymers. New York, Interscience, Publishers: A Division of John Wiley and Sons, 1967.

25.Jia P, Zhang M, Hu L, et al. Cardanol groups grafted on poly(vinyl chloride)-synthesis, performance and plasticization mechanism, Polym. 2017, 9, 621.

26.Chu H, Ma J. A strategy to prepare internally plasticized PVC using a castor oil based derivative, Korean J. Chem. Eng. 2018, 35, 2296–2302.

27.Jia P, Hu L, Feng G, et al. PVC materials without migration obtained by chemical modification of azide-functionalized PVC and triethyl citrate plasticizer. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2017, 190, 25-30.

28.Jia P, Hu L, Yang X, et al. Internally plasticized PVC materials via covalent attachment of aminated tung oil methyl ester, RSC Adv., 2017, 7, 30101.

29.Najafi V, Abdollahi H. Internally plasticized PVC by four different green plasticizer compounds, J. Europ. Polym., 2020, 128, 109620.

30.Li M, Chao X, Zhao J, et al. Preparation of anhydridized chlorinated polyvinyl chloride with enhanced properties and investigation of the factors affecting the chain structure of the graft copolymer. J. Elastomers Plast. 2015, 47, 136–152.

31.Liu H, Zhang XM. Review on chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, Polyvinyl Chloride, 2008, 36 (11), 9.
Zhang LX, Zhou C, Sun SL, et al. Study of compatibility, morphology structure and mechanical properties of CPVC/ABS blends. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2016, 116, 3448–3454.

32.Alan OJ, Robert VG. Process for chlorination of PVC in water without use of swelling agents, US4412898 [P], 1983.
Wakabayashi T, Kobayashi Y, Tujii I. Process for the preparation of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride resin, US-3534013 [P], 1970.

33.Arpagaus C, Sonnenfeld A, Von Rohr PR. A downer reactor for short-time plasma surface modification of polymer powders. Chem. Eng. Tech., 2005, 28 (1), 87.

34.Arpagaus C, Rossi A, Von Rohr PR. Short-time plasma surface modification of HDPE powder in a plasma downer reactor-process, wettability improvement and ageing effects. Appl. Surf. Sci, 2005, 252, 1581.

35.Wachi S, Morikawa H, Inoue H. Conversion distribution in diffusion-governed chlorination of poly (vinyl chloride). AIChE J, 1988, 34 (10), 1683.

36.Barriere B, Glotin M, Leibler L. An Analysis of the Reaction–Diffusion Mechanism Governing the Chlorination Process of Poly(vinyl chloride) J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 2000, 38 (24), 3201–3209.

37.Lehr MH, Parker RG, Komoroski RA. Thermal property structure relationships of solutionchlorinated poly (vinyl chlorides). Macromolecules 1985, 18, 1265−1272.

38.Lu W, Yang QL, Yan BH, et al. Plasma-assisted synthesis of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) characterized by online uv-vis analysis. Chem. Eng. J. 2012, 207-208, 923−930.

39.Lu W, Cao T, Wang Q, et al. Plasma-assisted synthesis of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) using a gas-solid contacting process. Plasma Processes Polym. 2011, 94−99.

40.Bernard FC, Arthur, LB. Two-step process for post chlorinating poly(vinyl chloride). U.S. Patent 5,216,088, 1993.

41.Lukas R, Svetly J, Kolinsky M. Structure of chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride). X. conclusions on the chlorination mechanism. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed. 1981, 19, 295-304.

42.Bai L, Lu W, Yang Q, et al. Experimental Study and Modeling of UV-Enhanced PVC Chlorination to CPVC Using a Gas–Solid Process, AIChE J., 2014, 60, 2235-2243.

43.Mao D, Yang Q, Zhang X, et al. UV-Enhanced Gas-Solid Chlorination of Polyvinyl Chloride for Cleaner Production of Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride, Chem. Eng. Technol. 2016, 39, 834-840.

44.Yang Q, Lu W, Bai L, et al. UV enhanced gas–solid synthesis of chlorinated poly vinyl chloride characterized by a UV–Vis online analysis method, Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 2015, 23, 1052- 1059.

45.Lu W, Cao T, Cheng Y. Process decoupling of plasma enhanced synthesis of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cpvc) particles in a circulating fluidized bed, 10th International Conference on Circulating Fluidized Beds and Fluidization Technology - CFB-10, 2013.

46.Qian YH, Cao GP, Li XK, et al. Synthesis of chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) with uniform distribution of chlorine assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide and a cosolvent, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2017, 56, 6562-6571.

47.Saroop UK, Sharma KK, Saroop M, et al. Grafting of poly(vinyl chloride) with methyl methacrylate-I synthesis and characterization, Eur. Polym. J. 1988, 24, 689-691.

48.Patil AV, Jain RC, Vora RA. Synthesis and characterization of graft copolymers of acrylic acid onto poly vinyl chloride using di-(2-phenoxy ethyl) peroxy dicarbonate initiator, J. Macromol. Sci.- Pure Appl. Chem., 2001, 38, 681-698.

49.Taghizadeh MT, Ghaffari SH. Kinetics and mechanism studying of graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers on PVC, Iranian Int. J. Sci. 2003, 4(1), 23-36.

50.Toma MA, Najim TS, Abdulhameed QF. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (vinyl chloride)- graft-Poly (ethyl acrylate) and its membrane, Al- Mustansiriyah J. Sci., 2016, 27 (1), 15-20.

51.Bicak N, Ozlem M. Graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate and 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate from labile chlorines of poly(vinyl chloride) by atom transfer radical polymerization, Journal of Polymer Science: Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 2003, 41, 3457-3462.

52.Paik H, Gaynor SG, Matyjaszewski K. Synthesis and characterization of graft copolymers of poly(vinyl chloride) with styrene and (meth)acrylates by atom transfer radical polymerization, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 1998, 19, 47–52.

53.Ghosh P, Bhattacharyya AS, Maitra S. Graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate on poly( vinyl chloride), Angew. Makromol. Chem., 1988, 162(1), 135–148.

54.Gressier JC. Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) onto poly(vinyl chloride) through benzodithioate groups, 1986, 23 (11), 1263-1286.

55.Rao SP, Santappa M. Graft polymers from poly(viny1 chloride) and chlorinated rubber, J. Polym. Sci., Part A1, 1968, 6, 95-107.

56.Ravve A, Khamis JT. Radiation grafting of MMA onto PVC film, J. Polym. Sci. 1962, 61, 185- 194.

57.Mobarakeh HS, Roudboneh MH. Study of vinyl acetate partitioning in emulsion copolymerization of vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate by ftir and hnmr spectroscopy, Journal of Polymer Research, 2006, 13, 421-426.

58.Huang Z, Pan P, Bao Y. Synthesis of random and block copolymers of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate by RAFT miniemulsion polymerizations mediated by a fluorinated xanthate, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2017, 134 (28), 45074.

59.Piette Y, Debuigne A, Bodart V, et al. Synthesis of poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(vinyl chloride) block copolymers by Cobalt-Mediated Radical Polymerization (CMRP), Polym. Chem., 2013, 4, 1685- 1693.

60.Chapiro A, Foex M, Jendrychowska-Bonamour AM. Grafting of acrylonitrile onto radiochemical peroxidized polyvinyl chloride) films. Eur. Polym. J. 1971, 7, 1241-1251

61.Langner VH. Attempts to elucidate the structure of PVC-styrene graft copolymers by fractionation. Die Makromolekulare Chemie, 119 (1), 37-49.

62.Chang Y, Pan M, Yuan J, et al. Morphology and film performance of phthalate-free plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) composite particles via the graft copolymerization of acrylate swelling flowerlike latex particles. RSC Advances, 2015, 5(50), 40076–40087.

63.Gaylord NG, Takahashi A. Graft copolymerization of cis-1, 4-polybutadiene onto poly (vinyl chloride), J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett., 1970, 8, 361-368.

64.Thame NG, Lundberg RD, Kennedy JP. Graft modification of poly(vinyl chloride) and related reactions. J. Polym. Sci., Part A-1: Polym. Chem., 1972, 10(9), 2507–2525.

65.Kennedy JP, Charles JJ, Davidson DL. Cationic Grafting: The Synthesis and Characterization of Butyl Rubber-g-Polystyrene and PVC-g-Polyisobutylene. In: Sperling L.H. (eds) Recent Advances in Polymer Blends, Grafts, and Blocks. Polymer Science and Technology, vol 4. Springer, Boston, MA.1974, 4, 157–163.

66.Chiefari J, Chong YK, Ercole F, et al. Living Free-Radical Polymerization by Reversible AdditionFragmentation Chain Transfer: The RAFT Process. Macromolecules, 1998, 31(16), 5559–5562.

67.Mayadunne RTA, Rizzardo E, Chiefari J, et al. Living Radical Polymerization with Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT Polymerization) Using Dithiocarbamates as Chain Transfer Agents. Macromolecules, 1999, 32(21), 6977–6980.

68.Chen T, Xu P, Luo Y, et al. Preparation of poly(butyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (coreshell)/phosphor composite particles and its application in PVC matrix. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2009, 114 (1), 496–502.

69.Ren L, Li Y, Zhang M, et al. Toughening of chlorinated polyvinylchloride with acrylonitrilebutadiene-styrene graft copolymers. J. Vinyl Addit. Techn. 2014, 22, 13-18.

70.Shur YJ, Ranby B. Gas permeation of polymer blends. IV. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) terpolymer., J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1976, 20 (11), 3121–3131.

71.Kim JH, Barlow JW, Paul DR. Miscibility of poly(vinyl chloride) with styrene/acrylonitrile copolymers. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 1989, 27 (11), 2211-2227.

72.Sotiropoulou DD, Gravalos KG, Kalfoglou NK. Modification of chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) by blending with epoxidized polybutadiene. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1992, 45 (2), 273-278.

73.Abbasian M, Entezami AA. Nitroxide mediated living radical polymerization of styrene onto poly (vinyl chloride). Polym. Adv. Technol. 2007, 18 (4), 306-312.

74.Bicak N, Ozlem M. Graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate and 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate from labile chlorines of poly(vinyl chloride) by atom transfer radical polymerization. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2003, 41(21), 3457–3462.

75.Gaylord NG, Takahashi A. Graft copolymerization of cis-1, 4-polybutadiene onto poly (vinyl chloride). J. Polym. Sci., Part C: Polym. Lett. 1970, 8 (5), 361-368.

76.Lee WF, Lai CC. Studies on graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto poly(vinyl chloride). J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1994, 51 (13), 2175-2186.

77.Lee WF, Lai CC. Studies on graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto poly(vinyl chloride) and curing behavior of its grafted copolymer. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1995, 55, (8), 1197- 1208.

78.Yanagase A, Ito M, Yamamoto N, et al. Mechanism of enhanced impact strength of poly(vinyl chloride) modified by acrylic graft copolymer. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1996, 60(1), 87-93.

79.Abd El-hakım AEFAEM, Haroun AAA, Rabıe AGM, et al. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) by incorporating modified CaCO3 nanoparticles as a filler., Turk. J. Chem. 2019, 43, 750- 759.

80.Fekete E, Pukanszky B, Toth A, et al. Surface modification and characterization of particulate mineral fillers. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1990, 135 (1), 200-208.

81.Fekete E, Moczo J, Pukanszky B. Determination of the surface characteristics of particulate fillers by inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution: a critical approach. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2004, 269 (1), 143–152.

82.Fernando NAS, Thomas NL. Effect of precipitated calcium carbonate on the mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride). J. Vinyl. Addit. Techn. 2007, 13 (2), 98–102

83.Ramasamy V, Anand P, Suresh G. Synthesis and characterization of polymer-mediated CaCO3 nanoparticles using limestone: A novel approach. Adv. Powder Technol, 2018, 29 (3), 818–834.

84.Kamal M, Sharma CS, Upadhyaya P, et al. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticle filled polypropylene: Effect of particle Surface treatment on mechanical, thermal, and morphological performance of composites. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2012, 124, 2649-2656.

85.Thenepalli T. Jun AY, Han C, et al. A strategy of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3) fillers for enhancing the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymers., Korean J. Chem. Eng. 2015, 32 (6), 1009-1022.

Co-Author

Virendrakumar Gupta