The main aim of this review study is to summarise the progress and recent modifications in the area of functionalised PVC including chlorinated PVC, PVC copolymers and their composite developments. Functionalized PVC and its copolymers
Developments in Functional PVC and Its Composites
Volume 10 | Issue : 1 | Received : November 27th, 2021 | Accepted : March 23rd, 2022 | Published : April 19th, 2022
*Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
The main aim of this review study is to summarise the progress and recent modifications in the area of functionalised PVC including chlorinated PVC, PVC copolymers and their composite developments. Functionalized PVC and its copolymers shown very good improved properties which enhanced the PVC application domain as compare to other polymers. Due to the higher chlorine content polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shows higher mechanical and fire-resistive properties which are suitable for building construction materials. PVC is also very good for piping, electrical and several other applications including the medical and toy sector. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) synthesis by different methods and the dependence of chlorine content on different reaction parameters are well established and studied in detail. Functional PVC and PVC copolymer and their related composites are very essential functional materials as they depict excellent performance in terms of mechanical properties, ease of processing, dispersion phenomenon and high thermal properties. Due to these behaviours modified PVC materials have opened a new and improved applications and opportunities in various areas like medical, sports, packaging and building constructions. Composite products based on functionalized PVC is also taken the interest of industries and researchers. Functionalized PVC composite products show better performance and structural stability. These functionalized PVC composites give better compatibility or miscibility with other polymers which also open new opportunities to make different products for various new applications. These functionalized polymers can also be utilized to avoid or reduce the mixing of different plasticizers during the processing of PVC based composite or blending formulations.
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Demand for lightweight and fuel economy by automotive and aircraft industries focuses to explore different materials. Alloys and composites developed with same objective to obtain superior
Synthesis and formability of Al/(Fe-Mn) particulate composite using stir casting
Volume 10 | Issue : 1 | Received : December 15th, 2021 | Accepted : March 28th, 2022 | Published : April 19th, 2022
*Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs)
Demand for lightweight and fuel economy by automotive and aircraft industries focuses to explore different materials. Alloys and composites developed with same objective to obtain superior desired mechanical properties compatible for such intended applications. However, alloy consider as solid solutions with metallic properties and cannot mix with primary major element in random proportions. This forced researcher community to develop composites, which are heterogeneous solid solutions or multi-phase materials comprising matrix and reinforcement.Aluminium being lighter, cheaper and abundant material compared to others, present investigation aimed at using this as matrix material. In addition to it, stir casting processing technique (less expensive) used for introducing ferromanganese (5% & 10%) into aluminium matrix. Optical microscopic analysis of processed composites reveals non-agglomeration and uniform distribution of Fe-Mn in the aluminium matrix. Mechanical testing performed on composites to find strength, toughness and hardness. Outcomes of these tests shows enhancement of both strength and hardness compared to parent aluminium matrix while as toughness reduced. Open die forging carried out in between temperature 4000C and 5500C to establish suitable forming temperature for composites. Composite1 (5% Fe Mn) forged for higher extent of deformation compared to Composite 2(10% Fe Mn) at same forging temperatures. Similarly, for same forging temperature load carrying capacity found to be higher for Composite 1 compared to Composite 2. This accounted due to the availability of higher extent of softer matrix phase near reinforced particles. Increasing forging temperature of compositesexhibit brittleness and initiates crack at earlier stage of forming.Thus, it is suitable to do forging at lower temperature especially for both composites to take the advantage of attaining higher deformations.
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To understand and assess the role of Graphene Oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the PA6/PMMA blend, nanocomposites, the PA6/PMMA (50:50 wt%)
Role of GO and rGO on the Structural Properties of PA6/PMMA Blend Nanocomposites
Volume 10 | Issue : 1 | Received : December 20th, 2021 | Accepted : December 23rd, 2021 | Published : December 28th, 2021
To understand and assess the role of Graphene Oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the PA6/PMMA blend, nanocomposites, the PA6/PMMA (50:50 wt%) blend-based nanocomposites were prepare by loading different wt% of GO and rGO (1wt% and 3wt%), through twin screw melt extrusion followed by injection moulding technique. Different compositions of the nanocomposites were prepared using melt mixed method at 2300C by applying a rotational torque 50 N. All the specimens were prepared as per the ISO/ASTM standards. The prepared specimens were stored in moisture free bags, until further use. In order to understand the role of GO and rGO on the structural properties the PA6/PMMA blend nanocomposites, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopic studies were carried out. The FTIR studies confirm the occurrence of all the characteristic peaks pertaining to the functional groups of the composites. It was also observed from the FTIR spectra that interactions among the different functional groups of the GO and rGO and PA6/PMMA observed. The XRD analysis of nanocomposites revealed the complete exfoliation of the GO and rGO in the PA6/PMMA polymer matrix and uniform dispersion of nanofiller in the matrix. These developed nanocomposites are suitable for biomedical, environment, shielding, energy and gas sensing applications.
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For good mechanical design, damping is often still an invisible requirement. Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) has a wide range of applications as a damping and sealing material. To offer the long-term service
Mechanical Performance Degradation of Naturally Aged Nitrile Butadiene Rubber in Low Frequency Range
Volume 10 | Issue : 1 | Received : March 8th, 2022 | Accepted : March 23rd, 2022 | Published : April 19th, 2022
For good mechanical design, damping is often still an invisible requirement. Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) has a wide range of applications as a damping and sealing material. To offer the long-term service of NBR, it is important to estimate the degradation of modal properties under complex mechanical and environmental loading. The present work aims to correlate the experimental data with generalized higher-order Maxwell models and curve fitting techniques to find the damping characteristics of NBR in low-frequency ranges with age. Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic, and it is allowed to age naturally in the oxidative environment with no load. Mechanical tests are performed to find hardness, true stress-strain behavior, and failure stress of virgin NBR and the naturally aged NBR. Deterioration of damping ability of NBR is studied by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) tests to relate the complex properties of naturally aged material at an operating temperature of 40˚C, with virgin material in the frequency domain. The developed curve fitting techniques are well acceptable with experimental data and higher-order maxwell models. Relaxation modulus in shear mode is calculated for virgin and aged NBR. Based on experimental results, it has been observed that the Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, Elastic modulus are deteriorated with natural oxidative aging. Modal properties of NBR namely storage modulus by 52%, loss modulus by 66%, loss factor by 31%, relaxation modulus by 43.9%, and damping coefficient by 31.25%, as well as damping ability has deteriorated with age.
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The best way to improve the overall performance of native starch is by chemical modification. In recent years, hydrophobically modified starch has attracted considerable attention for the design and manufacture of novel nanoparticulate drug delivery carriers. The purpose
An Optimize Formulation to Synthesis of size Controlled Hydrophobic Starch Acetate Nanoparticles using Box-Behnken Design
Volume 10 | Issue : 1 | Received : October 6th, 2021 | Accepted : March 12th, 2022 | Published : April 18th, 2022
*Box Behnken design
*Corn starch acetate
The best way to improve the overall performance of native starch is by chemical modification. In recent years, hydrophobically modified starch has attracted considerable attention for the design and manufacture of novel nanoparticulate drug delivery carriers. The purpose of this research was to synthesize hydrophobic starch nanoparticles (NPs) and to optimize process factors through the use of response surface methodology (RSM). The corn starch acetate (CSA) NPs was synthesized using an ultrasonic emulsification solvent evaporation process. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to investigate the effect of process factors on particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) including polymer concentration (A), sonication energy (B) and sonication time (C). For the correlation of the dependent and independent variables, we used mathematical equations and response surface graphs. The predicted minimized particle size (155 nm; 0.132 PDI) under the optimum conditions of the process variables (5mg/ml (A), 100kcal (B) and 30min (C)) were very close to the experimental value (161nm and 0.136 PDI) determined in the batch experiment. XRD analysis revealed that the A-type pattern of corn starch (CS) was completely replaced by the V-type pattern of CSA. The CSA and CSA NPs more thermally stable than the CS were confirmed by TGA analysis. From FE-SEM analysis, the polygonal shape of the CS was changed into a beehive-like structure with uniform porosity and the CSA NPs were seen as uniformly distributed spherically shaped NPs. In pharmaceutical formulation concerns, BBD is an effective design because it permits exploration and selection of the optimal composition with the least number of experiments to achieve a specific goal.
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In this present work glasses with chemical composition 30BaO-XBi2O3-(69-X)B2O3-1CuO and 30BaO-XBi2O3-(69-X)B2O3-1Fe2O3 (X = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mole%) have been prepared and labeled
Influence of Bi2O3 on Physical, Optical and gamma radiation Properties of BaO-Bi2O3-B2O3-CuO and BaO-Bi2O3-B2O3-Fe2O3 glasses
Volume 10 | Issue : 1 | Received : February 28th, 2022 | Accepted : March 17th, 2022 | Published : April 19th, 2022
*Indirect band gap energy,
*mass attenuation coefficients,
*effective atomic number
In this present work glasses with chemical composition 30BaO-XBi2O3-(69-X)B2O3-1CuO and 30BaO-XBi2O3-(69-X)B2O3-1Fe2O3 (X = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mole%) have been prepared and labeled as BBBC and BBBF series, respectively. Traditional quenching method was employed for making these samples. XRD diffractograms confirmed that the materials were amorphous. Physical, optical and structural properties were studied with the influence of Bi2O3 concentration. The density of both BBBC and BBBF series glasses increased with the increase in Bi2O3 concentration. With increasing Bi2O3 content, OPD falls but molar volume increases, implying that non-bridging oxygen’s develop and the glass expands. Tauc graphs were used to derive the indirect optical band gap energy as well as the Urbach energy. The indirect optical band gap (Eopt) in the current glass system reduced as the concentration of Bi2O3 increased. The XCOM software was used to examine experimentally established radiation shielding features including mass attenuation coefficients (MAC), half-value layer (HVL), mean free path (MFP), and effective atomic number (Zeff). It is concluded that the gamma ray shielding properties of the glasses are increasing with the increase of Bi2O3 content in the glasses. The glass sample A6 with 0.627 cm thickness reduces the intensity of the incident gamma ray to 50% of its initial intensity, whereas A1 required 1.801 cm thickness. Hence the glass sample A6 has highest radiation shielding capacity than other samples.
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August 31, 2022
This study reports the green synthesis of polymer blend nanocomposites of Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poly vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) embedded with Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu) mono metallic and Silver-Copper (Ag-Cu)
Role of Bimetallic (Ag-Cu) Nanoparticles on the Structural Properties of PVA/PVP Blend Green Nanocomposites
Volume 10 | Issue : 1 | Received : December 20th, 2021 | Accepted : December 25th, 2021 | Published : December 28th, 2021
* Polymer blends
* Biodegradable polymers
* Ag Nanoparticles
* Cu Nanoparticles
* Monometallic NPs
* Bimetallic NPs
* FTIR, and XRD
This study reports the green synthesis of polymer blend nanocomposites of Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poly vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) embedded with Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu) mono metallic and Silver-Copper (Ag-Cu) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), generated using plant mediated solution casting method. The formation of blend, polymer-polymer interactions, interaction between polymer and nanoparticles and role of the nanoparticles on the interactions among PVA/PVP blend nanocomposites were studies by FTIR spectroscopy. The crystallinity of the prepared nanocomposites was studied by the XRD characterisation technique and it is observed that there is an increase in amorphous nature, which is due to the addition of nanoparticles into the base matrix. These green composites are suitable for various applications such as food, medical packaging and electronic industries.
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August 29, 2022
PANI/RGO/NiCrO nanocomposite is synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline and Nickel-Chromium Oxide (NiCrO). The prepared PANI/RGO/NiCrO nanocomposite exhibited high specific capacitance of 800 F/g at the scan rate of 5 mV/s,
Synthesis of PANI/RGO/NiCrO Nanocomposite Material for Charge Storage Application
Volume 10 | Issue : 1 | Received : February 15th, 2022 | Accepted : September 14th, 2022 | Published : April 21st, 2022
* nanocomposite * aniline * supercapacitor * power density * transmission
PANI/RGO/NiCrO nanocomposite is synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline and Nickel-Chromium Oxide (NiCrO). The prepared PANI/RGO/NiCrO nanocomposite exhibited high specific capacitance of 800 F/g at the scan rate of 5 mV/s, high power density of 1399.44 Wkg-1 and high energy density of 70 Whkg-1. The as-prepared polymer nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study crystallinity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to know the functional groups, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for internal morphology and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal stability. The electrochemical performances of the sample are measured in aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte. The outstanding electrochemical properties suggest that the PANI/RGO/NiCrO nanocomposite is a promising material for supercapacitor application.
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